The two volume study by Ferdinand Chalandon La Domination normande en Italie et en Sicilie, Paris, 1904, reprinted, New York, 1969 remains crucial in terms of detail and narrative even if some of its interpretations now need modification. F. Chalandon, ‘The Conquest of South Italy and Sicily by the Normans’, in J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previté, and Z. N. Brooke, (eds.), The Cambridge Medieval History, volume 5, The Contest of Empire and Papacy, Cambridge, 1926, pages 167-83 is a convenient summary of his views. Fortunately Graham Loud The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest, Longman, 2000 provides an up-to-date English alternative building on his Church and Society in the Norman Principality of Capua, 1058-1197, Oxford, 1985. John Julius Norwich The Normans in the South 1016-1130, London, 1967 is a well written narrative. G. Galasso, ‘Social and Political Developments in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, in The Normans in Sicily and Southern Italy, Lincei lectures 1974, British Academy, London, 1977, pages 47-63 is a useful summary of the impact of the Norman invasions. Jean-Marie Martin Italies normandes, Paris 1994 and L.R. Menager Hommes et institutions de l’Italie Normande, London, 1981 are both invaluable studies. Giovanni Tabacco The struggle for power in medieval Italy, Cambridge University Press, 1989 places the Normans in a broader Italian context.
Italian Sources for the Conquest of Southern Italy
Amatus of Montecassino, Storia dei Normanni, edited V. de Bartholomaeis, Fonti per la Storia d’Italia, 76, Rome, 1935. The History of the Normans by Amatus of Montecassino, translated Prescott N. Dunbar, revised by Graham A. Loud, Boydall, 2004 is the only English translation. Geoffrey of Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae comitis et Robertis Guiscardi ducis fratris eius, edited E. Pontieri, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores 5 (I), Bologna, 1927-8. An English translation edited by Kenneth B Wolf The Deeds of Count Roger was published by the University of Michigan Press, 2005. Discussion of this work include: E. Pontieri Goffredo Maleterra, storico del gran conte Ruggero, Tra i Normanni nell’Italia meridionale, Naples, 1964, pages 211-282, S. Tramontana ‘I Normanni di Sicilia: direttrici di ricerca per nuove prospettive di lavoro’, Archivio storico della Sicilia orientale, volume 71, 1975, pages 207-286 and Ruggero il Gran Conte e l’inizio dello stato normanno (Relazioni e communicazioni nelle seconde giornate normanno-sveve, Bari, 1975, edited by Centro di Studi Normanno-Svevi dell’Universita degli Studi di Bari, Rome, 1977, republished Bari, 1991. William of Apulia, La Geste de Robert Guiscard, edited M. Mathieu, Istituto Siciliano di Studi bisantini e neo-ellinici, Testi e monumenti 4, Palermo, 1961. Kenneth B Wolf Making History: The Normans and their Historians in Eleventh-Century Italy, London, 1995, a valuable but flawed study of the major sources. O. Capitani, ‘Specific Motivations and Continuing Themes in the Norman Chronicles of Southern Italy in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, in The Normans in Sicily and Southern Italy, Lincei lectures 1974, British Academy, London, 1977, pages 1-46 is very important.
Byzantine Narrative Sources
Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of the Princess Anna Comnena: Being the History of the Reign of her Father, Alexius I, Emperor of the Romans, 1081-1118 A.D., translated E. A. S. Dawes, London, 1967 is an important source for the Byzantine view of the Normans. Basile Skoulatos Les Personnages Byzantine de l'Alexiade, Louvain 1980 is a detailed prosopographical critique of the Alexiad. There is also a valuable study by Georgina Buckler Anna Comnena: A Study, Oxford University Press, 1928, reprinted Sandpiper, 2000 that contains a great deal on relations between Byzantium and the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemond. Useful papers include: J. Howard-Johnston, ‘Anna Comnena and the Alexiad’, in M. Mullet and D. Smythe, (eds.), Alexios I Komnenos, Belfast Byzantine Texts and Translations 4.1, Belfast, 1996, pages 260-302; and, G.A. Loud, ‘Anna Komnena and her Sources for the Normans of Southern Italy’, in I. N. Wood and G. A. Loud, (eds.), Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages: Essays presented to John Taylor, London, 1991, pages 41-57; reprinted in Loud, Conquerors and Churchmen, chapter 13.
Western Accounts of the First Crusade
R. Hill, edited and translated Gesta Francorum, Nelson’s Medieval Texts, London, 1962 is a source of major significance. Commentaries of value include: K. Wolf, ‘Crusade and Narrative: Bohemond and the Gesta Francorum’, Journal of Medieval History, volume 17 (1991), pages 207-16 and J. France, ‘The Anonymous Gesta Francorum and the Historia qui ceperunt Iherusalem of Raymond of Aquilers and the Historia de Hierosolymitano of Peter of Tudebode: An Analysis of the Textual Relationship between Primary Sources for the First Crusade’, in J. France and W. G. Zajac, (eds.), The Crusades and their Sources: Essays presented to Bernard Hamilton, Great Yarmouth, 1998, pages 39-70. Guibert of Nogent, The Deeds of God through the Franks, translated R. Levine, Woodbridge, 1997.
Jubayr, Ibn, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, being the chronicle of a mediaeval Spainish Moor concerning his journey to the Egypt of Saladin, the holy cities of Arabia, Baghdad the City of the Caliphs, the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, translated R. J. C. Broadhurst, London 1952.
Italy before the Normans
N. Christie, The Lombards, Oxford, 1995 provides a general overview of the Lombard invasions and their impact. It should be read in conjunction with the essays in Cristina La Rocca (ed.) Italy in the Early Middle Ages 476-1000, Oxford, 2002, David Abulafia (ed.) Italy in the Central Middle Ages 1000-1500, Oxford, 2004 and T.S. Brown Early Medieval Italy 600-1216, Longman, 2004.
On the Lombard states in southern Italy see, Barbara Kreutz, Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, Philadelphia, 1991 and G. A. Loud, ‘Southern Italy in the Tenth Century’, in T. Reuter, (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 3, c.900-c.1024, Cambridge, 1999, pages 624-45. There are also the following case studies that span both the Lombard and Norman periods: Jean-Marie Martin La Pouille du VI et XII siecle, Rome 1993, Patricia Skinner, Family Power in Southern Italy: The Duchy of Gaeta and its Neighbours, 850-1139, Cambridge, 1995 and Huguette Taviani-Carozzi La Principaute Lombarde de Salerne, two volumes, Rome 1991.
Jules Gay L’Italie meridionale et l’Empire Byzantine, Paris, 1904 remains the most useful study on Byzantium and Italy. G. A. Loud, ‘Byzantine Italy and the Normans’, in J. D. Howard-Johnston, (ed.), Proceedings of XVIII Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Oxford, 1984, in Byzantinische Forschungen, volume 13 (1988), pages 215-33 and reprinted in Loud, Conquerors and Churchmen, chapter 3 gives a more recent view.
Two studies of Muslim rule in southern Italy of value are: H. Kennedy, ‘Sicily and al-Andalus under Muslim Rule’, in T. Reuter, (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 3, c.900-c.1024, Cambridge, 1999, pages 646-69 and H. C. Krueger, ‘The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095’, in K. M. Setton, (ed.), A History of the Crusades, six volumes, 2nd edition, Madison, 1969-89, volume I, pages 40-53.
The Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily
Gordon S. Brown The Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily, London, 2003 is a very recent and readable account of the conquest. Huguette Taviani-Carozzi La terreur du monde, Paris, 1996 is the most accessible biography of Robert Guiscard. P. Bouet and F. Neveux (eds.) Les Normands en Mediterranee, University of Caen, 1994, 2nd ed., 2002 contains valuable papers on the course of the Norman conquest of southern Italy.
J. France, ‘The Occasion of the Coming of the Normans to Southern Italy’, Journal of Medieval History, volume 17 (1991), pages 185-205 and E. Joranson, ‘The inception of the career of the Normans in Italy’, Speculum, volume 23 (1948), pages 353-96 consider the arguments for the chronology of the ‘adventus normannorum’. R. Lopez, ‘The Norman Conquest of Sicily’, in K. M. Setton, (ed.), A History of the Crusades, six volumes, 2nd edition, Madison, 1969-89, volume I, pages 54-67 and D. Waley, ‘Combined Operations in Sicily 1060-78’, Papers of the British School in Rome, volume 22 (1954), pages 118-25 look at the Sicilian conquest. However, Edmund Curtis Roger of Sicily and the Normans of Lower Italy, New York, 1912 remains the most recent biography of the leading Norman conqueror.
There are two valuable papers on the nature of the Norman Conquest: G. A. Loud, ‘How Norman was the Norman Conquest of Southern Italy’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, volume 25 (1980), pages 13-34, reprinted in Loud, Conquerors and Churchmen, chapter 2 and Joanna H. Drell ‘Cultural syncretism and ethnic identity’, Journal of Medieval History, volume 25 (1999), pages 187-302. Joanna H. Drell Kinship and Conquest, Cornell University Press, 2002 examines family strategies in Salerno between 1077 and 1194. G. A. Loud and A. Metcalfe (eds.) The Society of Norman Italy, University of Leiden, 2002 contains several critical papers.
Claude Cahen Le Regime feodal de l’Italie normande, 1940 remains the seminal text on vassalage, military obligation and land tenure while Hiroshi Takayama The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, New York, 1993 provides some insight into Norman governance. E. Jamison, ‘The Norman Administration of Apulia and Capua, more especially under Roger II and William I, 1127-66’, Papers of the British School in Rome, volume 6 (1913), pages 211-481 has a little to say on the eleventh century. G. A. Loud, ‘Continuity and Change in Norman Italy: The Campania in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, Journal of Medieval History, volume 22 (1996), pages 313-43 is a useful case study.
Giovanni Tabacco ‘Italy in the eleventh century: Northern and central Italy’ and Graham Loud ‘Italy in the eleventh century: Southern Italy’, in David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith (eds.) The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume 4, c. 1024-c. 1198, Part 2, Cambidge University Press, 2004 provide up-to-date coverage.
The Southern Normans and the Italian Church
On relations with the Papacy, Jean Decarreaux Normands, Papes et Moines, Paris, 1974 is the best general work on the subject. H. E. J. Cowdrey The Age of Abbot Desiderius: Montecassino, the Papacy and the Normans in the Eleventh and Early Twelfth Centuries, Oxford University Press, 1983 is important but see also his Gregory VII, Oxford University Press 1998 and edition of the letters of Gregory VII The Register of Gregory VII, Oxford University Press, 2002. L. T. White, Latin Monasticism in Norman Sicily, Cambridge, Mass., 1938 explores the revival of monasticism in the south. La Vie du Pape Leon IX, edited and translated by Michel Parisse and Monique Goullet, Paris, 1997 is a useful, if hagiographical biography of Leo IX, the loser at Civitate. There is an English translation in I. S. Robinson (ed.) The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, Manchester University Press, 2004. This volume also includes contemporary biographies of Gregory VII.
The economy of southern Italy under the Normans
David Abulafia, The Two Italies: Economic Relations between the Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Northern Communes, Cambridge, 1977 and ‘Southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia in the Medieval Mediterranean Economy’, in his Commerce and Conquest, chapter 1 explore the central issue of trade. Jean-Marie Martin Italies normandes, Paris 1994 is perhaps the best general study of the economic nature of southern Italy under the Normans.
The First Crusade
Jonathan Riley-Smith, (ed.) The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford University Press, 1995, is the place to start. A useful bibliography is Aziz S. Atiya, The Crusade: Historiography and Bibliography, London, 1962, reprinted 1976. The best full-scale treatments of the Crusades in English are Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, three volumes, London 1951-54, reissued 1987; Kenneth M. Setton (ed.), A History of the Crusades, six volumes, 2nd ed., New York, 1969-2000, a cooperative work by a number of historians; Carl Erdmann, The Origin of the Idea of Crusade, London, 1977; originally published in German, 1935, a classic in the history of the Crusades; and Christopher Tyerman God’s War: A New History of the Crusades, Allen Lane, 2006. Alternative interpretations to Erdmann are Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, London, 1986 and Louis Riley-Smith and Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095-1274, London, 1981.